Nighat Sahi

Published 9 June 2023

Understanding  UK Restraint of Trade from an Employment Perspective

The UK restraint of trade clauses, often found in employment contracts, have long been a subject of debate and scrutiny. These clauses are designed to protect employers’ legitimate business interests, such as trade secrets, client relationships, and confidential information. However, they can also limit employees’ career prospects and professional mobility. In this article, we will delve into the implications of the UK’s restraint of trade provisions from an employment perspective.

Understanding Restraint of Trade

Restraint of trade clauses, commonly referred to as non-compete clauses or post-employment restrictions, are contractual agreements that restrict employees’ activities following the termination of their employment. These provisions typically prohibit individuals from engaging in competitive activities or working for rival companies within a specific geographic area and for a defined period. Their primary objective is to prevent employees from using insider knowledge and connections gained during their employment to harm their former employer’s business interests.

Balancing Employer Interests and Employee Rights

Restraint of trade clauses can be a double-edged sword. On one hand, they allow employers to safeguard their trade secrets and confidential information, maintain client relationships, and protect their competitive advantage. These provisions are particularly important in sectors where intellectual property, proprietary processes, or client databases play a significant role.

However, from an employment perspective, these clauses can be seen as restrictive and potentially unfair. Employees may feel their career opportunities are limited, as they cannot easily move to a competitor or start their own venture in a related field. This can hinder professional growth, restrict entrepreneurship, and stifle healthy competition in the job market.

Enforceability and Reasonableness

In the UK, the enforceability of restraint of trade clauses depends on their reasonableness. Courts carefully scrutinize such provisions to ensure they strike a fair balance between protecting employers’ legitimate interests and employees’ rights to work and pursue their chosen career paths.

To be considered reasonable, a restraint of trade clause must meet specific criteria. First, it must protect a legitimate business interest, such as confidential information or trade connections. Second, it should be necessary to protect that interest. For instance, a senior executive with access to highly sensitive trade secrets may require a more stringent restriction than a junior employee. Finally, the clause must be reasonable in terms of geographic scope, duration, and the activities it seeks to restrict. Overly broad or excessively long restrictions may be deemed unenforceable.

Potential Reforms and Mitigating Measures

In recent years, there has been a growing call for reforms to UK restraint of trade provisions to strike a fairer balance between employers and employees. Some argue for clearer guidelines on reasonableness and greater protection for employees’ mobility and professional development. Others advocate for mandatory compensation for employees subject to non-compete clauses, providing financial support during the restricted period.

Alternatively, employers can adopt alternative strategies to protect their interests while empowering their workforce. These measures may include implementing non-solicitation clauses (restricting employees from poaching clients or colleagues), using confidentiality agreements, or providing garden leave (paid leave during the notice period).


The UK’s restraint of trade clauses serve a legitimate purpose in safeguarding employers’ interests, but they can also have unintended consequences for employees’ career prospects. Achieving the right balance between protecting employers and promoting fair competition requires careful consideration of the reasonableness of such clauses. Reforms that provide clearer guidelines and safeguards for employees’ professional mobility could help create a more equitable and competitive employment landscape in the UK.

As always, we will keep you informed of any development. But if you’d like more information or to discuss the implications for you, please get in touch.

The legal content provided by RSW Law Limited is for information purposes only and should not be relied on in any specific case without legal or other professional advice.

Copyright is owned by RSW Law Limited and all rights in such copyright are reserved. Material is not to be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written consent.